There are conflicting theories about the origins of the Anglo-Saxon Fuþorc. One theory proposes that it was developed in Frisia and from there spread later to England; another says that the runes were first introduced in England from Scandinavia where he edited (and created the Fuþorc) and then exported to Frisia. Both theories have their own internal weaknesses, and a definitive answer will likely have to wait for new archaeological evidence.
The elder Fuþark, Fuþorc was identical to the first except for the differentiation of the ansuz Rune(, a)in three different versions, (āc), (æsc) e (ōs),for a total of 26 runes: it was necessary to take into account new phonemes produced by differentiation of allophones of long and short ingaevonica. In England the Fuþorc was further extended to 28 and finally to 33 runes and Runic writing in England became closely tied to the Latin scriptoria from the time of the Christianization of the Saxons in the 7th century.
|Rune||old english name||meaning||Traslitteration||IPA|
|Þorn||“thorn”||þ, ð||[θ], [ð]|
|Ior||“eel”||ia, io||[jɑ], [jo]|
anglo Saxon Rune poem
f u þ o r c ȝ w h n i j eo p x s t b e m l ŋ œ d a æ y io ea
scramasax of Beagnoth:
f u þ o r c ȝ w h n i io eo p x s t b e ŋ d l m j a æ y ea
alphabet with 33 letters:
f u þ o r c ȝ w h n i j eo p x s t b e m l ŋ d œ a æ y ea io cw k st g
The younger Fuþark (or elder Futhark recently), also called Scandinavian runes, is a reduced form of the elder Fuþark Runic alphabet, consisting of only 16 characters against the previous 24, in use from the 9th century. The reduction, paradoxically, happened at the same time that some phonetic changes led to a large number of different phonemes in the spoken language, when proto-Norse evolved into old Norse.
Younger futhark differs in two types, one rune to long branches (Danish) and rune in short branches (Swedish and Norwegian). The reason for the difference between the two versions has been the subject of debate: a widespread opinion is that it is workable, or runes to long branches were used to write on the stone, while those in short branches were used in daily life to public or private messages on wood; further versions were developed starting from the younger Fuþark runes, Hälsinge, medieval runes and rune Latinized inventory.
Rune in short and long twigs
Hälsinge runes or without twig