futhark

The elder Futhark Runic alphabet or takes its name from the phonemes of the first six runes, and in its oldest form has three symbols Aett 24 from 8 runes. (aett: clan-group).
From the evolution of its oldest (elder futhark) have evolved other Runic systems: the Scandinavian futharkfuthark shortfreshly futhark, Anglo-Saxon futhark.
Normally most studies tend to consider the futhark-old because most intact in its review the alphabet meanings.
However you should consider that there are two distinct versions in circulation of futhark:
rune dagaz finale
rune dagaz finale
rune othala finale
rune othala finale

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The two Runic systems differ in the position of the two last letters (othala and dagaz) and it is still not clear whether this difference due to different cultures or is linked to more modern interpretations.

The runes in the three Aett

Freya aett

ff/f/*fehu“ricchezza, bestiame”
uu/u(ː)/?*ūruz“uro” (o *ûram “acqua/scorie”?)
th,þþ/θ/, /ð/?*þurisaz“il dio Thor, Jötunn”
aa/a(ː)/*ansuz“Áss (dio)”
rr/r/*raidō“cavalcata, viaggio”
kk/k/?*kaunan“ulcera”? (o *kenaz “fiaccola”?)
gg/g/*gebō“dono”
ww/w/*wunjō“gioia”

 

Heimdall Aett

h hh/h/*hagalaz“grandine”
nn/n/*naudiz“bisogno”
ii/i(ː)/*īsaz“ghiaccio”
jj/j/*jēra-“anno, buon anno, raccolto”
ï,ei
ï (o æ)
/æː/(?)*ī(h)waz/*ei(h)waz“tasso”
pp/p/?*perþ-significato incerto, forse “pero”.
zz/z/?*algizincerto, forse “alce”.
s ss/s/*sōwilō“Sole”

 Tyr Aett

tt/t/*tīwaz/*teiwaz“il dio Tiwaz”
bb/b/*berkanan“betulla”
ee/e(ː)/*ehwaz“cavallo”
mm/m/*mannaz“Uomo”
ll/l/*laguz“acqua, lago” (o forse *laukaz “porro”)
ŋ ŋ ŋŋ/ŋ/*ingwaz“il dio Ingwaz”
oo/o(ː)/*ōþila-/*ōþala-“patrimonio, tenuta, beni”
dd/d/*dagaz“giorno”

 

 

 

 

 

 


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