Transcribed in the 9th century, the Abecedarium Nordmannicum is the oldest catalog of Norse rune names known, although it does not contain definitions; It is partly in old high German and also contains a number of typical Anglo-Saxon runes. The text is preserved in Codex Sangallensis 878 page 321, in the Abbey of St. Gall (Switzerland), and can be a native of Fulda (Germany).
The Abecedarium Nordmannicum presents 16 new rune Futhark like the poem.
The Runic text was unfortunately destroyed in the 19th century by chemicals in an effort to preserve the document, but the text survives in a 1828 drawing by Wilhelm Grimm.
Illustration of Grimm, under the name “Abecedarium NORD” introduces new Futhark in 3 lines.


Linguistically, the text is a mix of the ancient Nordic, old Saxon and old Germanic; probably based on a Danish original, perhaps imported from Haithabu of lower Germany, and adattatoagli idioms of its recipients.

Original Poem

Feu forman/Ur after/Thuris thritten stabu/Os ist (t)hemo oboro/ Rat endos(t) uurita(n)
Cha(on) thanne cliuot /Hagal/Nau(t) habet/Is/Ar/endi Sol
T(ir)/Brica midi/endi Man/Lagu the leohto/Yr al bihab(et)



1)Bestiame prima/uri dopo/gigante la terza lettera/come questo chi segue/percorre come l’ultimo intaglio
2)la torcia scinde/ grandine/necessita di tenere/ghiaccio/anno/ e sole
3)Tyr (il Dio)/betulla con loro/e l’umano/lago brillante/tasso abbraccia tutti.


Another possible interpretation

“Feu [writes] first, Ur after, Thuris the third letter, Os follows them, Rat writes at the end.”
Chaon then follows ( cleaves ), Hagal, Naut has (” keeps) Is, Ar e Sol.
[Tiu] Brica and Man in the Middle, the bright Lake, Yr contains everything.



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